MUSINE KOKALARI THE ONLY POET FEMALE OF THE YEARS 1935-1945 / By: Arqile V. Gjata

MUSINE KOKALARI THE ONLY POET FEMALE OF THE YEARS 1935-1945

 

By: Arqile V. Gjata

gjata.arqile2@gmail.com

 

Abstract

Musine Kokalari’s literary creations are unique of Albanian literature of the yrars 35s – 45s of the twentieth century. Semantic analysis of poetry as well as the language and style of the verse; the selection of many wedding songs in the volume “How Much Life was shaken” (Sa u tund jeta),  constitute the axis of this study.

From the viewpoint that the language used has many folkloric elements, expressed this through a morpho-linguistic analysis, it is seen as an expression of a delicate spirit of a woman too. So it is necessary how clear and close to the language standard it is, related to social conditions of that time where the poet herself raises her voice as a very legitimate revolt. But it was advanced for that time. A revolt that would be in the wake of other writers and poets for a better life. With her creations, parts of the modern lyric and her language features  that  are also valued much today, Musine Kokalari is a treasure for us.

Key words: poetic creativity, lyric and modern poet, selected wedding songs, phraseology unit.

INTRODUCTION

I have chosen this great name in order to study her potry and weeding songs, not only for its values of resistance, neither as personalities of politics, but also as the only female poet and writer of the years 1935-1945 of the XXth century in our country, in Albania! “She is called the first Albanian writer with a consolidated view in Albanian literature (as a female)”.[1]

Musine had “a goal to fully recognize the culture of the Albanian people and to establish and erect the building of Ethnographic Literature”.[2]

  1. Kokalari successfully completed the University in Rome in 1941 and subsequently was faced the challenges of the political system of that time. She knew very well the demands of the linguistic geography and in her creative road, she worked to record and present in a special work all the wedding songs, gathered from the provinces of Gjirokastra. In 1944, he published in the Albanian Messagery, the books called “Rreth vatres” and “Sa u tund jeta” (How Much the life was shaken”. Her first poem was published in 1937 titled “Kolla e vdekjes”(The death cough):

“Era frynë / frynë me tërbim.

Pika e shiut /Goditin xhamat e penxhereve. /Kurrizin e të xhveshurve

Të braktisurve që enden rrugës…”.[3]

“Errësira vjenë, mbulon natyrën, / vë në heshtje zogjtë ligjëronjës”.[4]

Some of the Poems selected in her work are:

 

“Kolla e vdekjes”, “Pas xhamave të dritares”, “Anës detit”, “Shi”, “Një Melodi”, “Të Isha një Lule”, “ Ja…Unë”, as well as the collected songs, as national wealth in the Albanian Ethnography that are including in our study too.

 

MUSINE KOKALARI AND HER POETRY

If we look other authors who wrote poetry throughout the years 30-40, and compare their works, of course, as the poet and writer, Musine Kokalari has many values for the time she wrote! Nowadays, the creativity of M. Kokalari comes as a reality that belongs that time.It shows us the social conditions through her poetry where the devotion is related strong to the female-individuals, women rights etc.

At this important figure is seen clearly  not only the influence of the family and of the environment in which she  was grown up, formed and matured and displayed the image and her personality as a woman to the culture, language and literary creativity, but also an important role played her literary and scientific education in one of wellknown universities of that time, in Rome, which for that time, it was extraordinary. . .

Being a character, you must own the knowledge, be wise and patriot, for Musine all these values had! Even though in those years, in general, the poets wrote poetry, naturally, in classical style, with rhyme, M. Kokalari wrote in a modern style, in free lines, without rhyme, where we find out the string of vocal vowels at each end of the lines of verse, like that:

“dëgjohet, afrohet, largohet, prej gazit, të këndojnë,/ ndëgjohet kudo, çastet e kaluara, në dëfrime të shkuara, prapë vazhdojnë”etj. [5]

“Being a Flower” best describes as well the poetic “Ego”. It is very special for the individuality that it owns. As a poetical language, based on the pure and rich literary language. This poetry is written with free verse that effects on the readers showing poetic colors, the artistic figures and philosophical thoughts of the author; give a picture of that time with linguistic values ( the lexical  and the semantic meaning); and not only for the soft  feminine soul, but at the same time, also of the revolt of each Albanian about the difficult life and the problems of that time.

 

T’ISHA NJË LULE…( Being a flower)

T’ isha një lule–lule are, e vogël dhe me erë.

Të çelnja në pranverë

dhe në vjeshtë të vishkesha në vetminë t’ime.

T’isha një lule vjollce në mes të ferrave.

Të qëndroja e fshehur, e pa dukur

dhe një ditë të zbulohesha prej duarve të dy të

rinjve.

Prej frike,

të larguar prej njerzisë do t’më këputnin,

do të dhurohesha te njëri–tjetri

për shënjë kujtimi.[6]

 

In the above poem, the “dialect” effect of using the vowel “i” instead of “y”,  does not fit the literary standard word, but  is a morpho-grammatical and phonetic-dialectal detail in her poetry, e.g. “në vjeshtë të vishkesha në vetminë time”, (Use of “i” instead of “y” express the region’s color in the verse, that from Gjirokastra where she lived).

At the time when Musine wrote poetry (1937-38), she was an emancipated and cultured girl who could read poetry and prose in the foreign languages. Our poet, in those years, had written with a cleaner and more selected language than some of her contemporaries. The language used by the poet M.Kokalari has a linguistic culture; It is of the South Albanian language itself. Not only that, but she uses the poetic expression with a lot of professionalism, not just as a simple find. She combines poetry, giving it the dynamism, pace and the effects of “the breaking line”:

 

“NË GJI TË NËNËNS”(Inside the mother’s bosom)

“Nëna ngadalë kërkon fytyrën,

hëna lëviz në qiell dhe rrezet bien mbi ata të dy

që janë në rrugë. Ajo e sheh, e sheh mirë,

 për herën e fundit. Heshtazi afron buzët dhe i puth ata sy

që s’do hapen më,

me lotët e saj, vadit dhe pastron ato faqe

dhe me dorë i ndreq flokët”.[7]

 

Phraseological units of the type: “ata sy që s’do hapen më” (those eyes that will no longer open), the figurative meaning is “has died”; ” has no more life”; “see him/her for the last time”; “no longer see him/her” etc., I see it motivated with metaphor and gives to the poem figurative, stylistic and semantic values, in order to create its semantic meaning different from literal way, it is meaningfully expressed. In “dhoma e zhveshur” (naked room), it means ” an empty room”,  to show the poverty; giving a different atmosphere related to the feelings of the author that address readers in order to realize the communication.

 ”…kalon plasjet e mureve” (Passes through the breaking walls) – the meaning of it “penetrates, passes through,” and “it leaves the path” – giving the idea of “allow”; or in “gjallëri gjysmake” (half-vitality) – means “not enough”; “çape të rënda” (heavy steps) – means “walks hard” (he is tired, sick, upset, etc.).

Sensitively, it feels the use of phraseology, motivated this by figures of speech in the function of the idea and the context. So your body is shaking and the great pain you can feel. So I can say that this poem is really a poetic miracle …it’s the true realit of the life in our country… “Nëna ngadalë kërkon fytyrën” (Mother slowly looks for the face)”…

SOCIAL AND LINGUISTIC IDENTITY IN THE CREATIVITY OF M. KOKALARI

  1. Kokalari was grown up and educated in an advanced, enlightened family environment and her own personal dignity is superior to all the rest of the girls of that time.

As soon as you read M. Kokalari’s poetical work is seen a typical phonetic and lexical discourse of the areas of Gjirokastra where we can discern the structure of its language, of the environment that coincides with the developmental stage of the society of that time.

We must distinguish and divide her literary creations, written with linguistic culture, with her care for a modern literary language, with an expressive and emotional devotion. All her poetical creations which are fundamentally different from the rest of her work as a dedicated collector of the folkloric songs of the weddings in Gjirokastra and its suburbs.

It should be said that in her work is distinguished and felt more real the spirit of the revolt and the pain that was carving the life and the society of that period. The beauty of the poetic language and the uses of popular folk expressions belong to the country where the author lived herself. For both volumes published by the Publishing House “GEER”, 2009, selected by Novruz Shehu, songs that show the dialect language where they are formed and spoken and where they are sung which come to this study with a morpho-linguistic analyze, to highlight the linguistic and semantic values.

All the material accumulated in the book “Sa u tund jeta” (How Much  Life is shaken) contains many dialect elements. The wedding songs show  how they have developed their stature from one song to another, from one period to the next and the way they were singing to different generations, to the people in the wedding (the wedding people, the groom, the bride, mother-in-law, father-in-law, sister-in-law, brother-in-law, family, tribe, etc.), describing the way of living, relationship between them, with the elements of humor etc.

Other elements such as archaicism or dialectal characteristics of speech and the level of social and economic development of those regions, are present in this volume too.

In the creativity of M. Kokalari, who “… to give the best atmosphere as close as possible to the life of her people, she chose the dialect of Gjirokastra preserving it in some of the most typical performances. In all her poems, the situations, events, experiences, and feelings of the feminine world are convincingly distinguished.

By reading the literary work of this poet, you encounter and face a typical black and white definition!  It is the world of contrast, the world of confrontation between good and evil, pain and joy, revolt and silence.

“Errësira vjen, mbulon natyrën, / vë në heshtje zogjtë ligjëronjës” .[8]

“Kështu ngadalë përsëri largohet / pa bërë zhurmë, si një fantazëm e zezë”.[9]

In this shocking poetry, the rhythm of the word is strong, the exciting effects and the intensity of thoughts are grown from one verse to another.

 

“Bubullima buçet prej qiellit me forcë,

një kollë e thatë ngulçon.

në kraharorin e së mjerës.

…..

Përsëri kollë, por më e fortë.

Gruaja s’ka më fuqi,

rrëzohet për tokë dhe drejton sytë nga qielli.

Derdh lotë, lotë dëshpërimi dhe mëshirë…

asnjeriut s’i dhimbset.

…………

Sytë pa shkëlqim mbyllen dhe drita çduket dal–nga–dalë.

Buzët rrinë pak të çelura me një nënëqeshje tallëse.

Merr frymë për herën e fundit.

Kolla nuk dëgjohet më,

ajo triunfoi”.[10]

 

Kokalari’s poetry has strong emotional effects, sensations, and imaginations too. The use of the poetic sarcasm is as the result of her internal revolt which is interwoven with the intellect that characterized her.  While you are reading these verses … you can dissolve the soul of the poet! The heart weeps and the blood blushes from the sobbing! Such sensation for the readers you can find in all her poetic creativity.

Alongside F. Noli and Migjeni, she is the poet of the love for country; she is a soul of the revolt, the poet of pain, that was built on the reality of the time she belongs to say loudly and raise her voice against to the miserable state of her people, and in particularly to describe and putting the focus the Albanian women in her poetry. In fact all people, especially the Albanian women were suffering a lot and were tired of the ignorance and the economic situation, oppressed by the social interests of that time etc.

“Vdekja” (The Death), this poetry is shocking… It was written by a spirit of revolt. There is much sorrow inside of it. You can be thrilled from that reality of the people’s lives. The poet, the girl of that time, knows very well the world where she has lived and has a mission not only to reflect the reality but also to publicize and make her society aware of it.

…Dua bukë!”[11]

Ajo hesht, s’di ç’të bëjë; vetëm derdh lot.

Fëmija lebetitin, thërresin dhe ky zë oshëtin

në dhomën e çveshur prej çdo orendije

dhe si jehonë vajtimi dëgjohet ngadalë jashtë,

pasi kalon plasjet e mureve

dhe të çatisë,

të cilët i len shteg erës dhe shiut

në netët e ftohta të dimrit.

 

The child’s fear and pain, as echoes of mourning, after “passing the cracks of the walls and the roof”, would “open the way” to the wind and the rain. A colorful panorama, the connotation of the condition; the poetic profile through poetic figures, full of magic and fantasy are what the poet brings to the readers. Furthermore, the poet has written this poem with her soul. Her mourning echoes beyond the verses:

 

“Ja mjerimi!

Ja vdekja! Vdekja shpirtërore! Vdekja për së gjalli!”

In this poem ” The elegy” is seen as the culmination point, where the effect of repeating the word “death” reaches its semantic peak! In this poem, “the death …” finds amazing, grotesque and poetic figures, where metaphors tremble as a great pain artistically.

In the whole life, lamenting elements are expressed; “… with unwashed faces, with half vitality, that are leaving with heavy and tired steps”, spiritual death as suffering death, misery and ignorance!

 

“dyert çelen prej njerëzve me fytyra të palara,

rendin të lozin me baltën e rrugës.

Kudo lëvizje;

një gjallëri gjysmake duket.

Vajtje–ardhje, hapje mbyllje dyerësh

dhe çape(hap) të rënda që largohen…”[12]

 

“ANËS DETIT” (Near the beach), is the poetry, dressed in a thin poetic lyricism and a clear description … “taking some sights with you”. It seems a kind of parallelism with Noli’s poem with the same title “Anës Lumenjve” … but there are some different individualities of Musine, which make her unique. She didn’t copy it. Her profile is special. What it is so encouraging to me is that she wrote for acute problems of that time and raised her voice, even hard … and is not afraid.

 

“Këndshëm frynte era e detit ;

lehtas e ngadalëz përplaseshin dallgët

në shkëmbijt e gërryer shekuj përpara;

megjithatë heshtja mbretëronte.

 

Era pushon së fryri,

oshëtima e detit dëgjohet duke u larguar

dhe duke marrë me vete disa psherëtima,

barishtat e grabitura prej valëve

qëndrojnë në mes të detit

dhe dielli i fshehur prapa malit,

lëshonë rreze të argjenta

në sipërfaqen e qetë”.[13]

 

In these verses, the poetry is clearly structured by the semantic units, where the “silent” mode of a laconic poetic description and lyrical semantics is quite distinguished. In this poem. e.g., there is a distinctive feature of the adverb  “ngadalë-ëz”, (slow + suffix), which metaphorically conveys the delicacy of the waves, splashing and canoodling with “smile” and “gentleness”! It is the characteristic of her language, her way to express her soul in her verses using her idiolect, her individuality, which is spotted in this poetry with restful colors, soft feelings, etc., in order to bring the word as beautifully structured as the inner meaning of it.

Finally, we can say that M. Kokalari’s poetry and its stylistics devices have the format, the weight, and the presentation of a modern poetry which produces phraseology with different colors of the inner meaning, strong effects and different shapes of lexical construction. After seeing, observing, reading and analyze the poetry of M. Kokalari, we admit that she wrote in an approximately literary language for the time. Her language is smoothed and with little dialectisms, even though with some borrowings, it is naturally part of her vocabulary.

While reading her sketches, stories and her book titled “Sa u tund jeta”  (How much the life was shaken”), the author widely uses the language of the natives from Gjirokastra, an area of southern Albania, where she was born. The songs are collected as verbally source, where the dialectical forms from Gjirokastra regions are numerous and helpful of our study.

 

THE FOLKLORIC-ETHNOGRAPHIC VALUES OF “WEDDING SONGS” COLLECTED BY M. KOKALARI AND THEIR INFLUENCE TODAY

Another value related to the literary work of Musine Kokalarin is her admirable work in collecting wedding folk- songs, written  in the dialekt of Gjirokastra, in south regions.

According to the author (Novruz Xh Shehu of the preparation of M. Kokalari’s works), we learn that Musine “at the age of 10 begins to collect and arrange popular songs and stories from the people of Gjirokastra regions”.[14]

In 1937, Musine published constantly literary sketches in the newspaper called “Shtypi” under the pseudonym “Muza”. Her written works were distinguished by placing in the center, the women and the social problems of that time. According to me, I believe that it would be neither coincidence nor imitation, but an approach to the social problems where both Ali Asllani and M. Kokalari, treated poetically the same themes and influenced by the folk creativity of Laberia.

What I want to emphasize and define as an achievement and as a great ethnographic asset is the undeniable fact that M. Kokalari’s work is not merely to prepare a volume to accumulate verses, songs from the oral heritage of Gjirokastra regions, but because she knew and found out with great wisdom and creative ability to stylize, harmonize with fantasy  “The wedding’s  Gjirokastric WEEK”.

What makes this ethnographic work very interesting is that every wedding day has a reason, a customary ritual to be collected, both in the daughter’s and in the son’s home. For example:

“Daltë nga gola t’ënde e vaftë në vesh të Perëndisë”, “U, u! Kur kështu?”, “Dita e nishanit”, “Sa të vije…”, “Për së shpejti kemi dasmën”, Javën që vjen…”, “Dita e vetullave”, “Nata e brumit”, Dita e kënasë…”, Natë e kënajt…”, “Nën’ e vajzë…”, “Dit’ e nuses…”, “Nat’ e dhëndrrit…”. “Pala…(paja)”, “E pesta”…

Musine with passion and of course with a great will but also with many difficulties has been able to leave for the future, to the Gjirokastra regions, many songs that belong to centuries ago. They were singing in families from Gjirokastra and in the villages around it.

Those songs are the property of all the people of Gjirokastra regions. They do not have the author with a specific name, but they are the songs of the spiritual world of the former generations that lived in those settlements (there are about 504 such poems and songs).

These songs had come through mouth-to-mouth, which had been singing in generations with much love throughout the weddings telling much about culture, custom, and tradition. All the songs are in verse and preserve the melody, rhythm, rhyme. In those songs, there is a subtle and the hot ironi used as well. Almost, most of strings end with the vowels; ” a, e, i, u, o, y” and especially the use of the vowel “ë” as a very special phonetic linguistic element, the characteristic of the Albanian language. If we compare it with the other languages, they do not have this linguistic wealth!

“Moj nuse koqe (provincial) lajthi, / Ato që thanë për ti(y-i) / T’u bëfçin(sh-ç) kurban e hi. / Gjithë bota fjalë thanë. / Xhiko nuse moj sulltanë, / Ne të zumë e s’të lamë. / Xhiko nuse moj sulltanë.”[15]

“Filxhani larë me bojë, / Keshë(kam/kisha, past tense) mall pa të kërkojë, / Nga bukurija të doja; Vashë leshra mavrija(mavrija from “mavro”, from greek). / Moj të keshe ment’ e mija. / Ment’ e mija moj t’i keshe; (keshe –kishe, the verb “kam”, past tense, second personal pronoun); Saraf në Stamboll do jeshe(jam, ishe, – past tense) / Treqind lira do ti keshe.”[16]

“Mike me shami më nj’anë, / Moj mike, / Mos mike se dogje fshanë / Moj mike; /Ç’i bëra fshatit të shkretë. / Un’(-ë- is falling) e mjera? / Ra zjarri dhe u–doq vetë, / Un’(Short form of the personal vernacular, dialect form) e mjera”[17] ;“Bram bëri dyfeku, / Prapa atij bregu. / Dil moj nënë dil, / Dil të bëç( the use of “ç” instead of “sh”);  sehir (sehir – from turkey)./Se ç’të pruri djali. / Nexhip kanakari (kanakari – from greek), / Zogun e beharit (behar – from turkey) / Thëllëzën e malit.” [18]

“Në maj të malit-o /Trëndelina zarik-o, / Lulet e beharit-o, / Trëndelina zarik-o, (we notice the often use of the vowel “o” to give the music to the string and at the same time to discover the dialectal characters in the south areas of Albania).

Eja o behar ku je, / Të dergjemi n’ atë qe. / N’ato bashte plot me mollë, / Ato mollë ç’qen të ëmbla; vajza grikë–zëna. / Të mbulonin me mënga. / Me mëngat e sqetullavet,

Të keqen e vetullavet. / Vetullat pse t’u nxinë, / Apo ke vënë mazinë? / Jo,jo, jo, për Perëndinë, / Po kam vetë bukurinë.” [19]

 

PHRASEOLOGY AND ITS USE IN THE WORKS OF MUSINE KOKALARI

The phrases or expressions used by deeply sensual female feelings would classify in concrete and figurative units. I would mention two sides of the language used so skillfully, the ambiguities that give the phrase not only the figurative meaning but also the pragmatic character, through what is implied in, and that the readers make this inevitable divide by themselves in order to understand it better…

fig.  On the clasifications of the phraseological unit[20]

 

  1. A) The phrase is seen as a free phrase, where the concrete action is apparent, for example:

“… ja ke hipur kalit”; “në maj të malit-o”; “prapa atij bregu”; “eja o behar ku je”; “…koqe(provincial) lajthi”; “gjithë bota fjalë thanë” etc., in which we see them as free-phrases with concrete meaning according to the concrete action.

  1. B) The phrase is seen as a phraseological unit, with figurative meaning where the metaphors and other figures of speech are the very important elements of it, for example:

“Ti, ja ke hipur kalit (feel good), prandaja më flet kështu moj Aishe”; “të thom të mbaç golën”(don’t speak); “ra në të zeza”(has problems); “moj mollë e kuqe”(pretty); “je bërë dillë..”( is  frightened); “gjithë bota fjalë thanë”( rumors ) etc.,

But often these types of phraseological units are also motivated by hyperbole:

“i doli gazi mbi rroba”; “e mori zoti me gurë” etj., or with simile: “Si flori u duk përmbi të gjitha shoqetë” etc. We find them through the similes and the rhymes with folk character like that:moj si zez’ e gushë bardhë, moj si zez’ e kaço prerë, siri jot një lir’ e verdhë ”; “moj nuse koqe(provinciale) lajthi etc.

They also are spelled  out such phonetic elements as expressions of dialectical folk like that:  t”u bëfçin kurban; të më duaç derëzinj;  (the use of “ç” instead of “sh”), ose  “Zotrote je verdhur e je bërë dillë;  vajza grikë–zëna; ato që thanë për ti etj. (the use of “i” instead of “y”), “kren sitë”,ose “Pala…(paja); “daltë nga gola t’ënde…”; “ të thom të mbaç golën”;  (the use of “l” instead of “j”); “në ato bashte-në ato baçe”;  “të thom të mbaç golën” (the use of  “sh” instead of “ç” or “ç” instead of  “sh”) etc.

Also, in the verses, we find out morpho-linguistic values such as ““barishtat” for “barishtet”, (a dialectical form of the plurality of nouns); “ngadalë-ëz përplaseshin dallgët”, (the end of the adverb with a sufix to reduce the sense of meaning of the word, conotation of the word);“të çelnja në pranverë” instead of ” çelesha”, (dialect), etc.

Such phraseological units or free phrases available are best understood expressing the semantic meaning, which Musine appreciated and gave a great value through her selection work, and today they are very meaningful in the archive of Albanian poetical language with folk and culture values.

CONCLUSIONS:

1-The poetical literary creations of M. Kokalari have lexical and semantical values. Phrases in general and phraseological units with their meanings convey these values together with their message related to the dialect of Gjirokastra regions, the origin and the place where the author had been lived.

2-Frequently, within the poetry of Musine, there is a pain that is intertwined with a feminine revolt, but having the right force that is an expression of the persistence of authors such as Noli, Migjeni, etc., to get out of this difficult state of that time in which her poetic work was written and where they were addressed the verse as the main means of expression.

3-Albanian language is beautifully written by the author and very close to the standard of literary language too, bringing inside the contrast and the misery, both hope and love for the beter life.

4-In the use of southern dialect, is clearly seen the use of the vowel  “i” instead of “y”; also the use of “sh” instead of “ç” and vice versa, (bëfçin, duaç,  mbaç etc.); the use “l” instead of “j”, (siri, sitë, dillë etj.) ; the use of plural forms such as: barishtat etc.; the use of verbs be/have like that: jeshe, keshe, thom etc.

5-The Musine’s verse is free, without a certain number of syllables and with a variable structure that resembles the modern poetry without rules, but that belongs to the modern lyric poetry written in the 30s of the twentieth century.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CONSULTING LITERATURE

Musine Kokalari, Vepra, vëllimi i parë, Shtëpia Botuese “Geer”, 2009, Tiranë.

Musine Kokalari, Vepra, vëllimi i dytë, Shtëpia Botuese “Geer”, 2009, Tiranë.

Ali Asllani, Vidi–vidi pëllumbeshë, poezi të gjedhura, Toena, Tiranë, 1999, f, 244–249.

Ndreca, M., Fjalor fjalësh e shprehjesh të huaja, Prishtinë, 2000.

Jashari,  A., Fjalor me shprehje të huazuara në Gjuhën Shqipe, Korçë, 2007.

Jashari,  A., Material frazeologjik nga krahina e Devollit, SF,nr.4, 1975.

Kostallari, A., (1984). Gjuha letrare kombëtare dhe epoka jonë, Studime filologjike, 4.

Kostallari, A., (1989). Mbi disa drejtime të përsosjes së sistemit e të strukturës së gjuhës sonë letrare, Studime mbi leksikun dhe formimin e fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe, III. Tiranë, f. 41-76.

Memisha, V., (2006). Rreth shndërrimit të togfjalëshit të lirë në njësi frazeologjike. Në, Studime filologjike. Nr. 3 – 4.

Memisha, V.,  ‘’Studime për fjalën shqipe’’, përmbledhje artikujsh, Tiranë 2011.

Nerlich, B., Semantic theories in Europe 1830- 1930, Philadelphia, 1992.

Sh. Gjergji, “Mbi Relativizmin Gjuhësor, Frazeologji e Shqipes/Frazeologji e Anglishtes”, dokt. 2016.

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[1] Novruz Shehu, Musine Kokalari–Vepra–vëllimi i parë, f.42.

[2] Novruz Shehu, M.Kokalari, Vepra vëllimi i parë, f, 43.

[3]Novruz Shehu,  Musine Kokalari–Vepra–Vëllimi i parë, f.46.

[4] Vepra  po aty “Pas xhamave të dritares” ,f, 72

[5] “Një Melodi” M. Kokalari, Vepra, vëllimi i parë, f,99.

[6] M.Kokalari, Vepra e parë, f, 95-5.

[7] M.Kokalari, “Në gji të nënëns”, Vepra e parë, f, 78.

 

[8] Poezia “Pas xhamave të dritares”,f, 72.

[9] Poezia “Kolla e vdekjes” 12-Vepra e parë, 2009, f, 73.

[10] M.Kokalari, Vepra e parë,Tiranë, 2009, f, 68–69.

[11] M.Kokalari,Vepra, vëllimii parë, Shtëpia botuese Geer, 2009 f, 75.

[12] Vepra po aty fq. 74.

[13] Musine Kokalari, Vepra një, Shtëpia Botuese “Geeer” Tiranë, 2009, f, 82.

[14] M.Kokalari, Vepra vëllimi një, f, 41.

[15]M.Kokalari, Vepra, vëllimi i dytë, f-3.

[16] M.Kokalari, po aty, f, 34.

[17] M.Kokalari, po aty, f, 78.

[18] M.Kokalari, po aty,  f, 15.

[19] M.Kokalari, po aty, f, 17.

[20] Sh. Gjergji, “Mbi Relativizmin Gjuhësor, Frazeologji e Shqipes/Frazeologji e Anglishtes”, doktoratura 2016.

 

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