Ovidius – Genius, Illnesses, And Linguistic Play at Tomis /   By: Lucia Daramus; Writer,  Classicst, Poet, Free-Lance Journalist

 
Publius Ovidius Naso, Constanta (Tomis), by Ettore Ferrari, 1887
 
 
Abstract
 
– Ovidius – Genius, Illnesses, And Linguistic Play at Tomis –
 
The title of this paper will immediately make the informed reader ask himself ” – what is about in Ovid exile’s work – it is about illness? About geniality? About linguistic play? About being straggle with languages? -.
The importance of the languages over proposed here to analyzing the most important idioms used by Ovid in his exile poetry, especially from the etymological point of view, stresses out the reality of this poet as a linguist poet.
Ovid’s poetic program both in the Tristia and the Epistulae ex Ponto manifests itself as a type of yell, using all forms of styles of the linguistic manifestations. The importance of these works in exile requires not just a philological interpretation, but also historical-cultural and psychological understanding because of the complexity of Ovid’s experience.
Even when we talk about his death and his tomb everything is in a mystery, like a legend with some stratifications of beliefs.
I used for my paper historical, philological, and archaeological tools trying to demonstrate that sometimes a possible illness (or distress) can push a mind to express its geniality. This case is about the geniality of the Poet Ovid.
As a curiosity, also I let in my paper the popular voices, talking about Ovid as a legend.
At the same time, I chose to finish this essay in an unusual way, written a poem about a classicist who used to teach Ovid, to read Ovid in the teen time, being under pressure as a Jew.
At the final of this paper, I shared some pictures regarding the Legends about Ovid, and also some archaeological artifacts from Ovid time, now part of the historical treasure in National History And Archaeological Museum Constanta (Tomis) Romania.
 
 
Ovidius – Genius, Illnesses, And Linguistic Play at Tomis
 
by Lucia Daramus
 
Reading the latest writings of Ovid, I was asking myself how much his language was influenced by Thracian group languages in his exile at Tomis, today Constanta (Romania).
Who were the Getae? How much his illness in exile influenced his style of poetry?
We know that Ovid arrived at Tomis with approximation at the middle of May, 9 en…
We do not know exactly what itinerary he followed during the part of his trip, step by step….What historians and biographers wrote relating to his first trip are only suppositions. But, of course, the same signposts of his journey are written in his first poems of Tristia because what we do know is that he began writing Tristia during the Ionian Sea’s Voyage. Also, we know that Ovidius had an interest in the origin of languages, the signification of the words.
But, his new condition, being in exile, could have been changed a poet with pleasure for terminology?
What I will draw out in my essay about Ovid is the importance of etymology and semantics in the lexicology area, Naso using also these subtypes of linguistics.
We know, that these preferences of poets of classic epoque weren’t new. The most known example is Vergilius who was named ” Virgile linguiste” (Cf. A Meillet, Esquisse d’une histoire de la langue latine, Paris, 1928, p222: W.F.J. Knight, Clarus Aquilo, in ‘ The Classical Reviw”, XLVIII (1934) pp. 124 – 125: J. Marouzeau, Virgile linguiste, in Melanges Ernout, Paris, 1940, pp. 229 – 265.
In my opinion, Ovid is more creative, using in a maximum way, the languages’ tools.
Ex abrupto, looking inside of Ovid’s works, I realized how many examples there are, but they have different values.
Let make the same category:
a) As a first category, I can group the words related between them from the etymologic and semantic points of view. Sometimes, Ovid used a noun with its epithet, or two nouns or verbs in antithesis or creating a hendiadys.
Exempli gratia :
stellentia sidera (Am, I, 8, II)
aerherias aurus ( Am, II, 14, 41)
preces et verba precantia (Met., II, 482)
 
Or a special poetic creation using the linguistic play like following the inheritance of words in distich :
Tu quoque Pieridum studio, studiose, teneris
Ingenioque faves, ingeniose, me (Pont. II, 5, 63 -64) — where the adjective ” studiose” and ” ingenisose” have another syntactic function than ‘ the nouns which are related from an etymological point of view.
For the first time, in this article, I will stress out an example of a linguistic creation, using Ovid’s exile poems.
Pontice, letter five, addressed to Solanus,
As I said, in each poem of exile’s works, also in this letter, he cries because of his new place:
(Pont. II, 5, 15 -16)
‘ credibile est fiericondicione loci
vix hac inveniens totum, mihi crede, per orbem…’
 
Of course, we know, is about Tomis, a town with its population – Getae.
But who were the Getae?
They were natives who lived in Lower Danube. Exactly, they lived the territory between the Haemus Mountains (The Balkans), the Meridional, Carpathians, the southern part of the modern Romanian region of Moldavie, and also today’s region of Dobrogea, to the shore of the Black Sea. Their spoken language was the same language as of their relatives, the Dacians, who lived in the Carpathian arch mountains, today the territory between Transylvania and Moldavia. These groups had the same language, being named, or being known as the Geto-Dacians.
Another group, who spoke a very close language, was the group of Thracians, these and the Geto-Dacians having the same Indo- European language’s root. (Cf. Dictionar de Istorie Veche A Romaniei)
Geto- Dacians were considered as two tribes of the same block. They had contact with the Greeks. Some historians, like Herodotus (Histories, IV, 93 ), Thucydides (Histories, II, 96), Strabo (Geographia, VII, 3, 10), Polyainos (Stratagems. VII, 38), mentioned the Geto-Dacians as the most important group in that part of the world.
They were fighters, ” barbarians” in Ovid terminology, fighting between them sometimes, or as a compact group, fighting with others, what Herodotus said: ” Before reaching the Hister, he defeated the Getae, who believe themselves to be immortal. The Thracians surrounded to Darius without a fight. But, the Getae (..) were conquered immediately, even though they are the braves and most honorable among the Thracians”.
Or what Publius Ovidius Naso remarked:
 
‘ Turba Tomitanaque quae sit regionis et inter
Quos habitem mores, discere cura tibi est?
Mixta sit haec quamvis inter Graecosque Getasque
A male pacatis plus trahit ora Getis.
Sarmaticae maior Geticaeque frequetia gentis
Per medias in equis itque redique vias.
 
(Tristia, V, 7, 9 -14)
 
b) Another example of poetic creation, as a second category…is when the poet gives the same words a special and rare meaning. For example, in Tristia we have a meaning which is related, but the etymology is different, like in the line ” Vivere me dices, salvum tamen esse negabis ” (Tr. I, 1, 19).
Here, the term ” vivere” is antithetic to term ” salvum”.
In the distich:
 
” Sum quoque, care, tuis defensus viribus absens —
Scis carum veri nominis esse loco ” ( Tr. III. V. 17 – 18 )
 
Here the adjective (carus is used to indicate a name of a person; it is actually about Carus, the friend of Ovid; but in another line ( Ex Ponto IV, XIII, 2 ) the first name ( Care) is replacing the adjective.
 
” O mihi non dubios inter memorande sodales,
qui quod es, id uere, Care, uocaris,…”
 
As a veritable linguist, Ovid uses often linguistic calques from the Greek language. For the name Boetia, Ovid is standing up to the side of scholars who explain this name as coming from gr. ”bous”.
Following the same pattern, Naso invented a connexion between Tomis city and the Greek verb ” temno” (cut).
exempli gratia:
 
” Inde Tomis dictus est locus hic, quia fertur in illo
Membra soror fratris consecuisse sui”
 
(Tr. III, 33 -34)
 
A linguistic calque is also the name of the Black Sea – Pontus Euxinus — the hospitable sea, even the poet said that people from the past called this sea ” axenus”, which is the opposite – unhospitable; ” euxinus’ being a false attribute ( Tr. III, 27 – 28; IV, 55 -56; and V, X, 13)
 
As examples :
Tr. III, XIII, 27 – 28
‘Euxinos falso nomine dictus habet’
 
Tr. IV ” Euxini litora Ponti”
 
Ovid explained ” dictus ab antiquis Axenus ille fuit ” (Tr. IV, 4, 55 – 56)
 
And again in Tr. V, Naso provide and axplanation :
 
‘Quem tenet Euxini mendax tempora dura meae
et Scythici vere terra sinistra freti’ ( Tr. V, X, 13 -14)
Types of linguistic calque, we also can find in:
”Met., II, 638; Met. VIII, 151; Ars. am. I, 287 – 288; and the examples can continue.
 
I will write here only an example from Met. VII, 150
 
‘ Ciris… a tonso est hoc nomen adepta capillo ” – In this line, Ovid explains the name Ciris as coming from the Greek verb ” keirein” (cut).
The problem of his exile language is so complex and is pointed out also by the complexity of his living between two linguistic systems. Ovid, a civilized Roman, became a barbarian :” barbarus hic ego sum, qui non intellegor ulli ” ( Tr. 5.10. 35 -38)
Benjamin Stevens in his essay ‘ Ovid and Languages in Exile’ identified this aspect as a transformation. An important part of this transformation is linguistics. (Benjamin Stevens, op. cit. p 162 in Classical Philology: 104 / 2009.
The problem of language in exile is drawing by poet also in Tristia III:
 
”Haec domini fortuna mei est, ut debeat illam
infelix nullis dissimulare iocis.
Id quoque, quod viridi quondam male lusit in aevo, heu nimium sero damnat et odit opus.
Inspice quid portem: nihil hic triste videbis,
carmine temporibus conveniente suis.
Clauda quod altero subsidunt carmina versu,
erubui domino cultior esse meo;
littera suffusas quod habet marculosa literas,
laesit opus lacrimis ipse poeta suum.
Siqua videbuntur casu non dicta, Latine ,
in qua scribebabat, barbara terra fuit.
 
(Ovid, Tristia, III, 1, 5-10)
 
Another example we have also in Tr. 5, 1, 5-6)
 
In accordance with his assertions, I attempt to argue that Ovid’s statements may be interpreted in a close relationship between the verbal and thematic spectrum of his linguistic situation.
Regarding these words, as a reflection of his special ” linguistic situation,” I grouped another category of the etymologies. It is about ” beings” and ” things” which are part of aetiological and metamorphic legends, who keep their name of origin.
A very known example in this sense is:
– The sea in which Icarus is falling and the land keeps the name : Met. VIII, 229 -230; 234 – 235; Tristia I, 1, 89 -90; III, 4, 21 -22
”Quid fuit, ut tutas agitaret Daedalus alas,
Icarus immensas nomine signet aquas?
(Ovid, Trstia, III, 4, 21-22).
 
and
 
” dum petit infirmis nimium sublimia pennis
Icarus, aequoreis nomina fecit aquis ”
 
(Ovid, Tristia, I, 1, 89-90)
 
Ovid has a special predilection for etymologies and in my opinion, the most important work in this sense is ” Fasti” where Ovid proposes, so often, many explanations for the same word.
 
Let talk only about the name of the ” Moon”
– it derivation is a) from maiestas (Fasti V, 11 -54 )
 
b) maiores (Fasti V, 55 – 78)
c) Maia ( Fasti V, 79 – 106 )
 
And now, following Ovid’s examples, I will make my own etymology, using the extracts of Ovid line’s poetry.
 
1. axenus; auxenus < euxinus. a, um derivating from gr. εῠξεινoς – welcoming to everybody, and this gr. idiom coming from έῠξενoς – ‘ hospitalier ” – Cf. Bailly, 2020
 
2. Lat. barbarus < gr. βαρβαρoς, oς, oν – entrange, barbar, grossier, non civilise, cruel. Cf. Bailly 2020
Because I mentioned here some lines of Ovid’s works I will make the etymology of few idioms, like in the previous explanation, as a demonstration of Ovid’s predilection for wordplay, and also a predilection for words which are coming from other linguistic systems. In accordance to Jo-Marie Claassen, in ‘Ovid Revisited, Bloomsbury, London, 2008, p. 118 -119 – the most used word in exile poetry is ”amica’ and its derivations. Cf. p 118 : ” occurring about these themes as often in the exile poems as in the rest of the Ovidian oeuvre”.
Exempli gratia . Pontice 1-3: 1.1. 12 -14
Tristia. 2. 81; Tr. 5.9. 21
Ovid, Tristia V, IX, 21 – ‘Di tibi se tribuant cum Caesare semper amico’
The importance of this idiom is reflecting the poet’s feelings and also his preferences for this theme – amicitia – friendship – because he is talking, being at Tomis, about his status as a poet, but at the same time about his sadness, his anxiety’s experience, being unable to express ” apparently, as a poet in the second language. The term amicitia is so important for him, and the letters as a form of poetry written at Tomis and sent to Rome became a form of expression language.
As a theme with another important recurrency in his work is the term ‘ carmen’ :
 
‘inque suos volui cogere verba pedes,
carmina nulla mihi sunt scripta, aut qulia cernis” (Ovid, Tristia, V, 12. )
‘ (…) hic mihi praebebit carminis arma locus’ (Ovid. Tristia, V, 12)
‘ (…).. a componendo carmina Musa potest” (Ovid, Tristia, V, 12)
 
This orientation for this idiom is explaining as a very important act of his life, the preference for poetry as a modus vivendi.
I was pointed out few examples from Tristia as a demonstration of the occurrence of the term ” carmen”, only in this exile book (Tristia), but the examples of this word are so many also in Ex Ponto.
Because Ovid performs in his exile’s work as a linguist, using foreign terminology, I will abuse here by my skills in languages, explaining some etymologies, having as support some words from Ovid poetry.
 
exempli gratia:
 
lat. carmen, carminis < proto- Indo-European root *kan, meaning ‘ to sing’ – Cf. Online Etymology Dictionary. Regarding to Paleolexicon, the synonyms for this idiom, so used by Ovid in his exile’s poetry, are *geh, (i), – *ghel, – *seng (w)h..
As I said previously, Ovid has a very strong taste for old and also for a mixture of languages, which is pushing him to play in his works not only as a poet but also as a real linguist.
Coming back to the term – amicitia, amicus, etc., so used in poems of exile; what Jo- Marie Claassen noticed, the etymology of this word will demonstrate again the status of Ovid as a linguist- poet.
amicitia < lat.vb. amo, amare
As a Proto- Italic * ama – to take, hold, also the source of Sanskrit ‘ amisi, amanti’ – take hold of. Cf, Etymology Dictionary (online).
So, I will repeat my questions from the beginning: how much did his illness (his depression and anxiety ) in exile influenced his style of poetry?
According to the examples used previously and also understanding what does mean to live in between two linguistic systems, and also what does mean to be a poet using deeply linguistic tools, I believe his poetry lines, in which he declared that he is struggling with everything, are only a subterfuge to demonstrate his genialities in poetry, politics, and also languages.
This is because his force in poetry and also linguistics is not only a performance of his creativity but also a genius type of political manipulation. All- time, in his exile poetry, he expresses the desire of being asked by Augustus about a possible returning to his land. In the last days of his life he talked in his poetry about his dead body and also he affirmed his desire to be buried in Rome.
So, I ask again, what is about in Ovid exile’s work – it is about illness? About geniality? About linguistic play? About being straggle with languages?
According to the corpus of this paper, I believe that his works written at Tomis demonstrate his geniality as an expression of illness and also of his wonderful ability in using languages and playing with languages as a final scope of being again in his amazing Imperium, having again the status of a great and definitive position as a Poet.
So, even we can find in exile’s poetry some unusual syntactic structures and also Latin expressions as a mirror of Getae’s language, everybody understanding them as a barbaric form of spoken out, the poems written at Tomis, today Constanta – Romania, aren’t less important.
Of course, as an entire exile works of Ovid, we also have to understand his last days, and also what was happening after his life. We know that his last will was to be buried near Rome at his house. Actually, Ovid was thinking of death. We have his epitaph….
 
‘hic eqo qui iaceo tenerorum lussor amorum
ingenio perii Naso poeta meo.
at tibi qui transis ne sit grave quisquis amasti
dicere ‘ Nasonis molliter ossa cubent:’
 
Some of the archaeologists were drawing out something very interesting relating to the epitaph and his tomb. Actually, some of the resources said this type of poetry was really known at the beginning of the Medieval time. We know that, as a traditional history, even appeared in Medieval papers, Pantasus wrote in same manuscripts written for the king of Napoli, about a story told by Georgius Trapezuntius : De Magnificient III, 15 : non semel retulit legiosse apud bonum actorem Tomitanos cives Ovidio poeta ( …)collata e publio pecunia ….tymbon magnifice struxisse ante oppidi portam in loco maxime celebri”.
 
But later, regarding this business, European archaeologists were asking themselves where truly is Tomis? they proposed a lot of places, especially in the Balkan area. After years of observations and reading old papers and also digging, the archaeologists finally proposed for the last time that Tomis is in part of Dobrogea, Romania Today, more exactly – Constanta.
But first, they were digging in such parts of Bulgaria, and there, they discovered a very interesting inscription ( in Turtucaia), a funeral stone in the Latin language.
 
(Turtucaia, Bulgaria, funeral stone) – Hi ego quae iacior Val / eria / dicta fuisse
 
(Dobrogea, near Constanta, Romania – funerar stella) – Hi ego qu / i / i/ aceo ….the scholars believe that this stella was written in distich elegiac.
 
‘hic eqo qui iaceo tenerorum lussor amorum
ingenio perii Naso poeta meo.
at tibi qui transis ne sit grave quisquis amasti
dicere ‘ Nasonis molliter ossa cubent:‘ – Tristia II, 3, 73 – 76
 
 
The first letters of this funeral inscription were the same as the letters in Ovid’s Epitaph, of course with some linguistic transformations, under the types of environment.This was one of the reasons for the international scientists at that time to believe that Ovid’s tomb was discovered, and part of the inscription actually is also part of Ovid’s tomb, in Turtucaia.
 
But, not so later, another fragment, actually a funerary Stella was discovered near Constanta, Romania. The inscription is given up. And the stella and also inscription from Turtucaia were under observation, and under scientific tools treatment, and the research conclusion was that the first inscription from Turtucaia has nothing in relationship with the Ovid’s epitaph.
But what researchers noticed is that the funeral Stella discovered near Constanta was so, so related to Ovid’s epitaph, in each way: type of poetry, type of using letters, type of graphic, etc…. So, everybody was asking if this Stella is part of Ovid’s tomb. But in reality, after this Stella was treated scientifically, dated its period, everybody noticed that is so recent, and later in the distance than Ovid’s death. What actually the scholars can understand? So, the funeral stella is so much related to Ovid in Tomis, knowing now that Tomis is in Dobrogea Romania, even this Stella is not part of the Ovid’s tomb. But it is talking about a very strong echo over times about the poet Ovid.
These types of inscriptions we know, from poetry before Ovid, are so often used and are relating to a believing afterlife, hoping to be alive even in the same kinds of inscriptions talking about the name, occupation, relatives, society etc. Ovid, at the same time, being at Tomis, in his exile poetry used also part of his culture, even some types of funeral inscription, even he changed the poetry style and genre. And, going up with this explanation, after Ovid’s death, his famous life as a poet was so, so shared over to lands, and Tristia becoming so known and his epitaph being written and also read by educated people, in time this epitaph was becoming a poem in an oral tradition for everyone. This is the reason, after his death, around the Imperium lots of funeral inscriptions were like a copy of Ovid’s epitaph.
And because of the importance of this business regarding his tomb, in Romania today, but with a link with really, really distance in the past, there are some popular legends, in orality way. One of the oral tradition legends says that in the past – Sec. XVIII – a visitor, a French man, his name being A. de la Matraye, who was a collector of antiquities and also an author, wanted to visit Tomis (Constanta), and he asked some people about the most important places for visiting. Everybody advised him to visit an old tower when in the past used to live there an old St. and his name was St. Ovidius. Matraye was there, but unfortunately, nothing discovering about a man named Ovid, only oral legends and an ordinary tower. By the way, going in France he published that time a book (now in the National French Archive) about his traveling, and in that book, he also mentioned this story about Ovid , and the tower, and the Constanta.
The second Legend, it is again relating to orality and to popularly spoken like a popular myth.
This second legend is relating to a Lake on The Black Sea, near Constanta and the name of the lake is ” The Ovid’s Island’.The facts are so, so old. The story says. That time when God and St Peter were walking on the streets on the villages in mud, one night they arrived near Tomis, in a village with very bad people. They refused to provide something for their shelter and also water and food. But, St. Peter and God continued to ask for shelter overnight. In the distance, on the shore of the village, was a small and very poor cottage. Inside was living an old woman and also the master of the village. The master of the village was foreign, and his name was Ovidius. He was not able to rule really in that village because he was struggling with the local language. By the way, St Peter and God were welcomed by the old woman. She had inside only an old caw and water. Ovid and the old woman milked the caw and provided their food and shelter. Over the night everything was changed. The village disappeared, remaining only a spot with green and the cottage of the woman on the top of the Black Sea. The old woman was so scared about everything and Ovidius was called to explain what was happening. Ovid was also astonished and after hearing this, he was transformed into a very large stone, today The Stone of Ovid in Constanta. And also the island, that small spot on the Black Sea, was named – The Ovid Island!
These legends, of course, are only legends, but are relating to the importance of Ovid as a Poet at that time, in that place!
 
The Ovid Island!
 
As a final statement of my paper, I suppose that the most important work of a human, talking about a real geniality, is that work blooming out from his / her struggling in life, including a possible problem of mind, of language, and also of alienation from the land, and roots.
The poems of exile require more than linguistic and philological interpretation, but also, the philologists have to abuse psychological tools and also historian -cultural abilities. This is because of the complexity of Ovid’s personality and also his experiences at Tomis.
So, Ovid – Genius, Illness, and Linguistic play at Tomis!
 
 
I will finish my talking in an unusual form, reading a poem as an expression of the beauty of the mind of a classicist, being oppressed by the Holocaust movement. It is about one of my Professors – Frieda Edelstein – a classicist who was oppressed, as a Jew, but she continued to read classics and to perform in clandestinity, especially the syntax and Ovid’s works, being under this very known form of oppression – the Holocaust.
 
A Beautiful Mind Under Repression
 
to my Professor Frieda Edelstein
Di tibi se tribuant cum Caesare semper amicos.
Ovidius, yes, Ovidius, in my mind —
I’m talking between semantics and syntaxis
about torture, about abuse, about fight against Jews
about humiliation
Yes, I am a Jew, a young student in Sibiu
I was put out of the school
my skin was hated by my mates, my teachers
first I went out into a corner of the room
I remember in that room the light ….
the light was playing on my black hair. A Jewish hair.
the first time, in a mute situation without a kind and pleasure
conversation until today, I started to talk to the light.
It means the light to know about Ovid and his house in Sulmona
dum petit infirmis nimium sublimia pennis
Icarus, aequoreis nomina fecit aquis
Daily I used to have with me – Ars Amatoria
I am a Jew with Ovid in my brain
with Latin syntaxis and structures and old verbs
but not the entire of my life is a linear structure with Latin formulas
so often black words, gray words, and hard words broke my heart
and my mind, and my soul….so often I’m hearing ‘ You, Juda, go out’!
black, black, black controls my heart
A heart for all forms of classical culture
yesterday we as a family discovered that our relatives
from Moldavia were sent to camp prison only for Jews
now, for them only tears in the sky in Transnistria
We are freatened . we know nothing about our existence
our existences in our hands? or there is somebody who plays with us?
I don’t know, what I know for sure is that Ovid was growing at Sulmo
Sulmo, Sulmo, Sulmo what a singing name
with green- fields around, with spring waters
and , and old creatures like Narcissus
My mind is flying to Ovid’s house. House ….
I’m walking daily on the narrow streets in Sibiu
with flowers and white blue sky …and over my head few buildings
with florals corners like in Vienesse style. And I’m hearing German, and Hungarian, and Romanian. sounds…sounds so familiar for my ears.
this is Sibiu, a city of culture, a city of thinking, but now…
know my city, my city is crying with tears in black and gray colours
and in my brain, Ovid is flowing, and flowing so away…
in my heart, in my mind is a pain
a pain translated in all languages of hate
I found my darling uncle was sent to Transnistria. my father used his
Jewish and political connexion and we know what is happening
in that part of the world.
Death! Death! and torture….women and children are forced to work
work until death. men are beaten savagely and tortured, tortured
and dessolution, and famine, and hungry….
we are Jewish…and just this is only our sin.
Sometimes the Jews are gathered around a big hole and….tic-tac-tic-tac
shot – shot – shot….in our heart.
One night a group of four tried to pick up some wild fruits.
dissolution and death! and everywhere blood…blood..
our Jewish blood. black clouds on air, black clouds in Jews’ minds.
Our expectation was only in death. angel in black rob
and eyes with earth and big – big teeth.
But our father wanted to save us – me and my sister
his entire worked life was given to a man….
but, we smiled….he was able to hide us…..—
a forest, with wild animals shelters….
I took Ovid and some grammar books
few years, few years…only Ovid was my friend
Ovid from Sulmo with gods, and mythological figures
deities with power on the sky and on the earth….
but away, far away only fire, and death, and war, and hate.
people died. yes…..and blood and flesh were flowing on the streets
my beautiful streets of Sibiu
One day our friend was able to provide us some news
about Europe…about country, about Bucharest
new destitution of human beings —
all Jews were beaten until death in Bucharest
and naked and after they died they were hung as
fresh animal flesh on the hogs in the abattoir
and up…up…over their unhuman head only a note
 
‘ just Jew fresh flesh – Halal”
my mind that time started to run.
I wanted to be alive I felt sorrow for all of my mates
but I wanted to be alive, alive….
to visit Sulmo and talk about Ovid
and his lines’ poetry in their special structures
in my mind, in my mind along with tears crying for my mates
some voices of Afrodite and Appolo with his Lyra singing in lyrics style
about beauty, a possible beauty of our world
and I wanted to keep, to keep these Ovid’s voice
in my mind …in a world with a fight, and war, and blood on the streets
…..Ovid, Ovid, Ovid…….
Tu, quoque Pieridum studio
studiose teneris
Ingenioque faves, ingeniose, me….
now, after years, years, the sky is again in bright colours
and only my mind who was singing in Latin forms
was able to draw forms , forms of others lives
My name is Frieda Edelstein — I was a Jew student living between
Ovid…and a world of killing
I am a Jew, now a Professor for my youngest
all of them are my children giving a feeling of liberty
to be able to fly, to fly
and this was only because one day somebody gave me Ovid…..
 
by Lucia Daramus
 
 
 
Lucia Daramus
 – Writer,  Classicst, Poet, Free-Lance Journalist –
 
Nationality : British
roots – Gypsy-Jewish- Romanian
faith – freedom of mind
 
email :   philos9phantasia@gmail.com
 
Member of The Classical Association
Member of The Poetry Society
 
Qualifications
 
          2020  Oxford University Qualification , UK, in Writing Life (creative writing relating to biography,  autobiography, memoir)
Dissertation – A Biography Of Latin Poet Ovidius
 
1999-2002 – B.B.University Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Letters, MA in Linguistics
 
            Qualifications Type: MA in Linguistics
 
            Field of Study: Integral Linguistics  
 
Principles of Integral Linguistics (Latin and Greek), Semantics, Latin Integral Lexicology, Text Semiotics, Metaphor Semantics, Integral Linguistics Issues , Text Poetics on Latin, Greek and Modern texts, Trends in Language Philosophy
 
            Dates: October 1999 – Jun 2002
             1993-1998 – B.B.University Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Letters, BA in Ancient Greek and Latin
 
            Qualification Type: BA in Ancient Greek and Latin
 
            Field of Study:  Ancient Greek and Latin
 
I was trained in Latin Language, Ancient Greek Language, Computer Science, Classical Philology (as archaeology, numismatic, ectodics = Critical Text Editing , etc),  History of Ancient Rome and Greece , Theory Of Literature, Psychology, Pedagogy, Latin Literature, Ancient Greek Literature, Methodology, Comparative Literature betweek Latin, Greek and Modernity, General Linguistics (including linguistics of classics – Latin and Greek, Pedagogical Practical Training, Aesthetics, Indo – European Linguistics, Culture and Civilisation of Latin and Greece.
 
       Whitout a qualification, I attended few courses at the Hebrew Faculty, Part of Babes-Bolyai University (Transylvania), learning Hebrew, and culture and civilisation – 1993- 1994
 
          Dates:  1996 – 1998 Eductaional Psychology and Pedagogy Study, Certificate,  ‘Babes-Bolyai’ Universit
 
2014-2015 Diploma In Child Behaviour , UK
 
Online Academies, trained in Child Behaviour
 
      –  December  2020 – CPD Certified, Adolescents Emotional Resilience and Self- Harming / Understanding Young Mind , UK
 
A Level College – Baccalaureate Diploma , ” V . Alecsandri ” Theoretical College
 
Qualification Type: GSCE + A level exam  (in European countries similar is Baccalauréat )
 
Subjects Studied: PHILOLOGY
 
Dates: 1988 – 1992 In Romania and European Countries students are trained for GSCE and A level exam, for four years and the final exams are in the final year at age 18
 
Work Experience
 
Teacher
Teacher of classics (Latin – Greek and Culture and Civilisation)  and supply teacher
2018 to present
Lynx Education 
Prospero Agency
Monarch Education
Secondary School, Stroud
Banana Pre- School, Bristol
Gloucester Academy School
Blue Coat School Bisley (February 2020 – July 2020)
 
September 2000 – Jun 2001” Maranatha” Theoretical College
 Latin And Ancient Greek Teacher and Culture and Civilisation
 
My role was to teach students between 12 years old and 18 years old Latin Language, and Greek Language and also the culture of antiquity and literature.  Being a confessional college, I was trained in Christian religious areas to translate and to interpret  with my students the fragments of the Bible (from Latin and Greek language)  and also to translate and interpret from Christian literature (Greek and Latin). Also, I organized a drama team for  perfoming subject of classics (Greek tragedy, subjects of Roman History, Greek History, etc) and also teaching techniques of writings in classical and modern styles 
 
 September 2001 – Jun 2007  ”Radu Stanca ” Secondary School
 
Latin Teacher and Culture and Civilisation
 
As a main teacher of classics I taught my students Latin Language, Mythology, Ancient Literatures, Ancient Cultures (subjects from history, religions, arts,  etymology , etc)
 
In this school I organized a group of theatre , performing in the city with my students some plays from antiquity and also teaching techniques of writings in classical and modern styles .  I led a magazine in school for teacher
 
Editor
 
2018 to present  – free-lance journalist for Severn FM (Gloucestershire, Uk ) – my program – Under The Evening Lights – promoted poets around the UK
 
 
August 2002 – 2007- cultural journalist and editor  ” Renasterea ” Radio Station, Cluj-Napoca
 
I worked as a cultural journalist, making interviews, talking  about subjects of world literature, history, arts, classical music,  etc.
 
January 2003 –  October 2015 – Cultural Editor Pro Saeculo Magazine – a magazine about modern literature and histoy, and also about Rome and Greek Civilisation
 
I wrote and I’m still writing articles about modern writers and poets and about classical  literature (Latin and Greek), interviews, essays, etc.
 
Contributing in other magazine
 
Romanian magazines in English language – a critical article about British Poet Jay Ramsay , the article is written in etymological style, explaining some words and also histroy of translation
 
 
 
French Magazines:
 
reviews, interviews  (this dialogue is build on the subject of a type of a new philosophy, transdisciplinarity, when the French philosophers try to create a form of understanding between poetry and quantum theory)
 
 
 English magazines: (here is a review written by me as a final meeting between the minds of classicists, heving in the middle of discution the problematic of Ovid. The most influencial actant of this, it was Professor Mary Beard)
 
examples :
 
 
 
etc.
 
Writer
 
As a writer I wrote and published 13 books in Romanian language, and also in English. I wrote and published  articles, essays, poetry, interviews, short stories  in some magazines in England, Romania, France, Germany, Canada, Austria, etc.
 
In French Magazine
 
etc
 
In English Magazine, and article about Latin Poet – OVIDIUS
 
etc
 
In Romanian Magazine, in English language – An artcicle with linguistics subject (Greek, Latin Etymology)
 
 
etc.
 
Books:
 
  Lim-lin, a volume of poems, 2002
  Limelfice, a volume of poems, 2003
  Facing Light, a volume of thinkings, dialogues, and also essays about classical subjects.  2004
The Rainbow Of The Stories, 2007
Myths and Ancient Legends of Roman and Greek Culture,  – essays about classical subject, like ethymology, explanation of the Greek tragedy from psychological poit of view – 2008
Interviews, – the subjects around these interviews are history, history of modern and classical literature, history of art, linguistics, etc. 2010
More Then Psychosis, novel – 2010
   The Light,     –            2013
    Fly , Madness, Fly! –  play, 2017 – England
 
 
The Convoy Of The Lambs, 2018  – novel about the Holocaust in Transylvania. The website in English is now under working (in progress), but the informations about this book are on the Romanian website
 
 
Flying With Memories, 2019  – England
 
Published Translations from Latin in books :
 
 -Laus Stultitiae, by Erasmus, selected texts in bilingual edition, Ed. P.45
 -Aulularia, by Plautus, bilingual edition, Ed.P.45
Achievements ( Symposiums, Conferences, Contests, Literary Festivals)
April 1994 -2nd Prize for A Philological Study on St. Paulos Letters ( study on Latin and Greek texts))
April 1996 – 2nd Prize for A Comparative Study on religious elements in The Persions and the Old Testament (study on Greek texts)
April 1997 – 3nd Prize for A Philological Study on the Books of the New Testament  (study on Latin and Greek texts)
Oct 1999 ( The National Student Symposium Lucian Blaga) – Special Prize for methodological accuracy, for Culture and Philosophy in Blaga’s Thinking
3 Oct. 2003 – Recognition in the 20th Avant-garde National Poetry Contest, nominated for the best debut book of the year
Dec 2003 – the Etno-Poesia Prize
March 2004 – contributor as a writer, and also journalist at International Book Fair, Chisinau, Moldavia
July 2004 – Contributor as a writer and also journalist at National Book Fair, Iasi Romania
2005 – Winner of  Canadian International Poetry Prize ”Gasparik’, Canada
2006 – Contributor at International Philosophical-Literary Festival ”Lucian Blaga” with a philological paper
2007 – Contributor at International Philosophical -Literary Festival ”Lucian Blaga” with a philological work
2007 – Contributor at International Conference European Integration, Between Tradition and Modernity (Tradition – Classical Civilisation and Modernity), Belgium
2008 – Contributor at International Philosophical – Literary Festival ”Lucian Blaga” with philological work
2018 – contributor as a writer at Frankfurt International Book Fair, Germany
2019 – winner of literary competition, part of the Belfast Book Festival with the poem La Mariee
 
 
2019 – Contributor as a writer and also journalist at International Literary Festival in Dorset, ”Tears in the Fence”
2020 – Contributor as a writer and also journalist at Gloucester Literary Festival
2020 – Contributor as a poet at  The Word Bin, my moment – 2:16
 
 
2020 – Contributor as a writer and also journalist at  Crafty Crows online Poetry Movement Gloucestershire
2020 – Contributor as a writer at Sydney Poetry Louge event, Australia
2020 – Contributor as writer at York Spoken Word, UK 
2020 – Contributor as a writer at Run Your Tongue International Poetry Event
2020 – Contributor as a writer at Word: Stafford Poetry Event
2020- Contributor as a writer and journalist at ”Oooh Beehive” International Poetry Event. My moment 42:15
2021 – Contributor as a writer and also journalist at Lenguas, an international poetry event in Mexic and USA. My Moment 1:35:01     https://www.youtube.com/watch?
 
app=desktop&v=D4zm0MXeXD0&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR149Yl5qMtUK9iUaRjC5bjMUWnq8wiKCzAuE6naT9-gO_GQ3Yv-P1lIU7M
 
2021 – Contributor as a writer and poet at WonderZoo Poetry Event, part of the History Festival in Plymouth
2021 – Contributor as a writer and journalist at Spoken World – Paris
2021 – Contributor as a writer and poet at Uncut Poetry Event, Exeter
2021 – Contributor as a writer and poet at Taking the Mic at the Exeter Phoenix
 
 my moment – 1:19:10
 
2021 – Contributor as a poet at Haiku Of Hope. with haikus in Romanian -English and Gypsy- English language, a project of Radio Hope in Birmingham
2021 – Contributor as a poet at The Poetry Place, at the WestWiltsRadio
my moment 43: 47  
 
 
2021 – Contributor as a novelist at the World Book Day 2021, Meet the Authors, UK
2021 – Contributor as a poet at ” Like A Blot From The Blue”, Scotland
2021 – Contributor as a poet at Social And Justice Festival Pint Of Poetry, Stamford Art Centre, UK
2021 – Contributor as a poet at ”Trade Winds”, Devon, Uk
2021 – Contributor as a poet at ‘Raised  Voices’, The Gloucestershire Poetry Society
 
my moment 53:16   
 
2021 – Contributor as a poet and writer at Squatters’ Press, Romanian – English Language
2021 – Contributor as a poet at ‘Atunis Poetry’ in English language, Belgium – Holand
2021 – Contributor as a interviewer – poet at ” Everybody Reviewiong ”
 
 
2021 – Contributor as a poet  Crafty Crows, The Gloucestershire Poetry Society , my moment 08:30 
 
 
2021, June, Contributor as a Featuring Poet at Spoken World – Paris
2021 – Contributor as a poet at Ely Arts Festival, June, featuring poet Zoe Brooks.
 
etc.
 
Hobby – painting – exhibitions:
 
Cluj – Napoca Romania (collective exhibition)
Gloucester – UK (collective exhibition)
Longfield – UK (Collective exhibition )
Cheltaham  – Uk  (collective exhibition )
Stroud – uk (own exhibition ) – ESCAPE FROM MADNESS, March 2018
Stroud – UK (own exhibition) – The Colours of Our Life, February, 2020
 
Languages:  Romanian (fluent), Gypsy (middle to high level writing speaking), Idish ( middle to high level of writing, speaking ), Italian (middle to high level of speaking and writing), Spanish ( middle to high level of writing and speaking ), English – forever in progress as a linguistic form of my type of expression
 
***
 
Lucia Daramus has a very open mind and in one of her essays – ‘ When The Colours Flow Over The Universe’ – she said: You can lose your country, you can lose your land, you can lose all of your wealth , but you remain with something: you remain with your language to lament your sadness, your blue feelings; you remain with the colour to reflect the anxiety of your soul; you remain with the dance which can imagine your struggle.
 
If all of these are kidnapped because of an ill-luck of an illness of mind, you remain with the memory of these  types of creation which come from subconscious.

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