Dialectics in the works of Nasimi and their integration into the Turkish language
By Mahira Nagi gizi Huseynova (Azerbaijan)
Doctor of Philology, Professor
Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University
This is a delightful and endless explanation of the love for the great Nasimi’s literary heritage, which the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Mr. Ilham Aliyev declared 2019, the Year of Nasimi. He was the first , who lived and wrote during his life and activity the social – philosophy ghazals , made revolution on social – philosophy thoughts in native language, in history , in XIV –XV centuries. With this historical achievement , Nasimi had a significant influence on the development of public opinion in Azerbaijan. On the other hand, Nasimi demonstrated his active position in Azerbaijan in all spheres of society, nature and thinking and demonstrated his ability to reflect beautiful lyrical feelings. Creativity Nasimi coincided with the most intense and controversial period in the history of Azerbaijan. History has repeatedly confirmed that the language is able to reflect the history of in any nation. From this point of , Nasimi’s language reveals the real history of the view.
In Nasimi’s works, which are very difficult in social and political life, the dialectic is very spread out , and the study of their abundant forms, the study of issues of integration into the Turkish language is extremely аctual for our time. Mutual integration of dialectics in Turkish should be characterized by the preservation of some ancient Turkic lexical units in Nasimi’s works , on the one hand, by the fact that radical forms are subject to certain phonetic changes. Nasimi skillfully used dialectics to create certain stylized effects in the history of the Azerbaijani literary language, which understands its responsibility, and some of them can be interpreted as follows in works : Yesterday: this dialect was used in Nasimi’s poems in the meaning of “night”: yesterday is the day when I regularly commit adultery, everyday life, dawn? Yesterday and today …. my day is always a gloomy morning . While “yesterday’s” word is translated into modern Turkish and Azerbaijani Turkish without any phonetic changes, in Turkmen Turkish this word is used with ‘y” in the middle of the word. The word “night” refers to the word “night” in Bashkir Turkish (kısӓ ), Qazakh Turkish (keşe ), Kyrgyz Turkish (keçё), Uzbek Turkish (keçӓ), Tatar Turkish (kiçӓ), and Uygur Turkish (keçӓ). An interesting fact is that the ancient form of the “yesterday’s” word is found in the Uyghur language, and the entire word is written in the first component of the compound word of the Uyghur language.
The word “dün” means the “darkness” in Azerbaijani dialects and variations. The word “tün” is used in the Ganja dialect, which means “covered street”. B. Khalilov notes that the word “tün” in Gakh means “eight liter oil container .” For exam: I kept eight liter oil in container. (Tündə nəft saxlayırıx.) This word is used in the Ganja dialect as “overlaping aisles from different sides of the shops.” The word “night” means “Uigur”, “Jygatay”, “Taranchyn”, “Kirghiz”, “Black Kirgiz”, “Altai”, “Sakai”, “Coibol”, “Koman” and others. in the middle of the night: day and night, at midnight (in Kyrgyz) in the middle of the night; tün ortozı (Teleut language) – the middle of the night; or the tun (in Teleut) is the middle of the night. In Nasimi’s period, the word “tun” was one of the lexical units of the common literary languages and was preserved in some turkish literary language and dialects of the Azerbaijani language, although at present it is used in the literary languages of most Turkic languages. G. Mamedova shows that in modern speech language there are some words that were considered from the words “tün” . For example , this is definitely the word ” crowd “, which is a very closely to the previous of word: Child, what are you doing in crowd , come here. ( Salyan dialect ) In addition, we met the phrase of this word meaning “sly night”, which is used in the dialect of Salyan region. About a man who passed an immoral, homeless, cunning and deceptive life, uses the expression “He passed from evil deeds” // left the evil castle . In our opinion, this creates the concept of “night, a meeting place for nightly entertainment,”
V.V. Radlov showed that the word “tün” in the language “soyon” means “night” and “yesterday” (part of the word “dün” is derived from the word “yesterday” in Azerbaijani language). V.V. Radlov gave the meaning of the words which were derived : “tün/tüna” (“yesterday” in Jagatau language), “tüna” (“spend the night in Uigur language),” tünak “(dark places, prison, dungeon, in Uigur language),” tünaqi “(” Yesterday’s Day “in Shigai, Koibol, Djygayay languages),” tüneqin “(” Yesterday “in Karaite language) and etc. Таке attention : tünak → tün – a → tüna → tünak; tünaqi – tün – a → tünaqi (yesterday in Azerbaijani); tüneqin → tün – e → tüne – tüne – qin // kin // gün → tüneqin (yesterday in Azeri language yesterday → yesterday – day – yesterday)
Butterfly: this ancient word is used in several lines by Nasimi: I’ll cover myself with a butterfly like golden coins You knew, the butterfly was like a medicine for me .
Though, this expression doesn’t use in the dialect and varieties in Azerbaijan language , but it is kept on some toponymies. Thus, the village of Kopanakchi was registered on the territory of the Azerbaijani population of Georgia. In ancient times, the word butterfly, meaning the name of a piece of clothing, is now the word “felt coat .” The word ” felt coat ” means phonetic varieties as “yâpinçik” in Uzbek-Turkish and in Turkmen – Turkish “yapınca”. The word “butterfly” is used fonetic verisions in Turkey Turkish ” Kepenek” and in Kazakh Turkish ‘ kevenek ” In the epic “Kitabi Dada Gorgud” the lexical unit of the butterfly was developed: “The boy was wearing a black felt coat . The butterfly does not wear a necklace.
Sinək: Nasimi used this word by analogy with the meaning “fly, insect” in his works : If I explain the sweetness of the lip on blood, My soul will fly on tasty sweeter sugar .
In ancient Turkish dictionaries, the word sinək , siyək // sinək // sisək was written in phonetic flame options in fuzzy // “flies, mosquitoes”. The words “sinək ” and ” siyək ” are mean the meaning of ” fly ” in the dialect of Salyan region. For example, the grapes were left under the sun, became sour, the flies gathered. (from the conversation).The word “siyək ” means also meaning the kind of insects with the phonetic variety as ” sisək” with the saying ” pispisi “.The ancient word ” sinək” also means as insect in the dialect of Kerkuk. I can show some of them as examples: a fly, ants, scorpions, louse and etc.
The word “sinək ” uses in Turkey turkish as “sinek ” , in Turkman turkish ” siɳek” . In Turkish Languages , the mutual integration of this word is manifested in the word “fly”. As so , these lexical units have phonetic variations in Azerbaijani Turkish “çibin”, “sivin” in Bashkir Turkish, “şıvın” in Kazakh Turkish, “çımın” in Kyrgyz Turkish, “çivin” in Tatar Turkish, “çivin” in Uykur Turkish .
Yeg: although this word has become archaic in modern Azerbaijani literary language, it has retained its ancient form in our Ordubad and Baku dialects. This word uses in the meaning of ” better, more beautiful ” in the modern in our language. The word ” yeg” used in the meaning of ” good ” in Nasimi’s language : I’m not complaining about the torture of a beautiful girl . How every torture is better than loyalty ; Foot dust shows the way to me and this dust is more important from the doctor’s treatment.
The word “Yeg” is used in Turkey Turkish, in Uygur Turkish, Turkmen Turkish without any phonetic changing , and this should be considered a strong integration.
Yemiş: This word was noted as “yimiş ” on ancient written monuments. . The word “yemiş” was used in the meaning of fruit in ” Oguzname ” . In this lines of verses, this word has been used in the meaning of “fruit, one”: What is the tuba tree, Every moment created , a male or a female , Created … would really be a sweet root .
The word “yemiş” uses in three meanings in the dialect of Azerbaijan language and varieties. 1) In the sense of “every kind of fruit”: 2) In the sense of “dry fruit mixture, grape seeds”: Bashir bought dried fruit mixture for holyday ( Shamakhy , the South Azerbaijan) 3) ” The man who ate well-fed meals( Qubadly ) The word ” yemiş” incurred semantical narrowing in our literary language uses in the meaning ” qovun” . Using the phonetic representation of the word “yemiş” in Turkish languages : “yemiş” (in Turkish), “yimiş” (in bashqird), “jemis” (in Kazakh), “gemiş” (in Kyrgyz), “çimiş” (in Tatar), “iymiş” in Turkmen , “yemiş” (in Uygur)
According to these words, we come to this conclusion that , carefully exploring the integration of Nasimi into the Turkic languages, , lexical, grammatical signs and all this is the subject of research work.
Translated into English: Mesme Ismayilova Aliyulla qizi ASPU